The world is currently under the threatening shawl of SARSCoV2 as the COVID-19 pandemic has already infected more than 12 million people around the globe and claimed 5,71,660 lives approximately. The search for a vaccine has become the subject of priority for the scientific community around the world. A total of around 155 vaccines are under development and are toiling around several stages of trials, 22 of them having reached the clinical trial stage.
Recently India introduced its first potential vaccine which has been named Covaxine. It is being developed by Bharat Biotech, in collaboration with the National Institute of Virology. India’s Covaxine is an inactivated vaccine, which means that the dead strains of SARSCoV2 are being used, which will be injected into the human body in order to trigger the immune response of that body, which shall in turn develop immunity against the virus by producing protective antibodies. The SARSCoV2 strain was isolated in National Institute of Virology, Pune and sent to Bharat Biotech for further proceedings. Bharat Biotech says that the vaccine candidate was successful in developing immune response during the pre-clinical trials.
All India Institute of Medical Science (AIIMS), Patna, is all set to begin the human trials of Covaxine. AIIMS, Patna will start the clinical trials on 18 volunteers, from all age groups (18-55 years old). Prior to that, Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) had selected 12 medical intitutes, including AIIMS, Patna to conduct the human trials.
This stage of the clinical trials is known as the Phase I trial, during which, all the 18 volunteers, will be injected with three doses of Covaxine. Prior to the injection, the volunteers shall go through a complete medical check-up, after which, their reports will be carefully analysed, and in case everything goes well, they will be allowed to get themselves injected with Covaxine. The volunteers shall be under observation for a period of two to three hours, after being injected with the first dose of Covaxine. Injection of three doses of Covaxine will mark the end of the trial.
Meanwhile, several other vaccines are under development across the globe. Oxford University, in collaboration with AstraZeneca, a pharmaceutical company, has developed the vaccine, ChAdOxl-S, which is currently undergoing Phase 3 clinical trials on human volunteers. Chinese vaccine company CanSino Biologics, in collaboration with Beijing Institute of Biotechnology, has developed the vaccine, Ad5-nCoV, which has completed Phase 2 clinical trials and has been approved for use in the Chinese Military. Moderna’s mRNA-1273 vaccine candidate has started Phase 2 clinical trials. Inovio’s INO-4800 is undergoing Phase 2 clinical trials in South Korea. Russia’s vaccine candidate, developed by Gamalei Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, has recently completed Phase 1 clinical trials in Russia’s Sechenov University and is supposed to start Phase 2 clinical trials on Monday (13th July, 2020). These are just few examples of many vaccine candidates, which are at several stages of their development, around the globe.